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PLOS Resources on Ebola

Virginia Barbour, Medicine & Biology Editorial Director at PLOS, on the urgent need for Open Access research into the Ebola outbreak in West Africa.


This post was updated on November 21st to include new research published in PLOS Pathogens and new commentary published in PLOS Currents Outbreaks.

This post was updated on September 19th, October 9th, 15th and 17th, and November 2nd, 3rd, 13th and 14th to include new content from PLOS Currents Outbreaks, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases and Speaking of Medicine.


The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa probably began in Guinea in 2013, but it was only recognized properly in early 2014 and shows, at the time of writing, no sign of subsiding. The continuous human-to-human transmission of this new outbreak virus has become increasingly worrisome.

Analyses thus far of this outbreak mark it as the most serious in recent years and the effects are already being felt far beyond those who are infected and dying; whole communities in West Africa are suffering because of its negative effects on health care and other infrastructures. Globally, countries far removed from the outbreak are considering their local responses, were Ebola to be imported; and the ripple effects on the normal movement of trade and people are just becoming apparent.

There is an urgent need for research into all aspects of this Ebola outbreak.  PLOS is addressing this need today through two channels.  First is the rapid publication of important early research in PLOS Currents OutbreaksThe second is a new PLOS Collection that pulls together all the current published articles in the PLOS corpus, which are, like all our content, freely and openly available for download, use and reuse. The Collection is available on Flipboard as well as being described below.

Map of the three countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) involved in the 2013–2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease as of June 20, 2014. The putative first virus introduction and epicenter are in the vicinity of the town of Guéckédou in the Guinea Forest Region. CDC: doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003056.g001
Map of the three countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) involved in the 2013–2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease as of June 20, 2014.
The putative first virus introduction and epicenter are in the vicinity of the town of Guéckédou in the Guinea Forest Region. CDC:

All of the PLOS publications are open to submissions on Ebola. In PLOS Currents, an integrated direct-authoring and publishing platform, Outbreaks affords authors an accelerated review and publication process.  The seven PLOS journals — PLOS Biology, Computational Biology, Genetics, Medicine, Neglected Tropical Diseases, ONE, and Pathogens – also consider research on Ebola within each journal’s particular scope.  To expedite publication in the appropriate venue, editors of one journal may recommend facilitated transfer of submissions to another of the journals or to PLOS Currents: Outbreaks.

The new Ebola  Collection will be regularly updated with new content from all of all  of the PLOS publications Please contact with enquiries.


The Current Outbreak

Is West Africa Approaching a Catastrophic Phase or is the 2014 Ebola Epidemic Slowing Down? Different Models Yield Different Answers for Liberia

Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Cécile Viboud, Yang Kuang

Commentary | 20 Nov 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

A Three-Scale Network Model for the Early Growth Dynamics of 2014 West Africa Ebola Epidemic

Maria A. Kiskowski

Research | 13 Nov 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

What Factors Might Have Led to the Emergence of Ebola in West Africa?

K.A. Alexander, C.E. Sanderson, M. Marathe, B.L. Lewis, C.M. Rivers, J. Shaman, J.M. Drake, E. Lofgren, V.M. Dato, M.C. Eisenberg, and S. Eubank

Commentary | 11 Nov 2014 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (early publication on Speaking of Medicine)

The UCSC Ebola Genome Portal

Maximilian Haeussler, Donna Karolchik, Hiram Clawson, Brian J Raney, Kate R. Rosenbloom, Pauline A. Fujita, Angie S. Hinrichs, Matthew L Speir, Chris Eisenhart, Ann S. Zweig, David Haussler, W. James Kent

Research | 7 Nov 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Conservancy of mAb Epitopes in Ebolavirus Glycoproteins of Previous and 2014 Outbreaks

Julia Ponomarenko, Kerrie Vaughan, Alessandro Sette and Sebastian Maurer-Stroh

Research | 3 Nov 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Social Pathways for Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Sierra Leone, and some Implications for Containment

Paul Richards, Joseph Amara, Mariane C Ferme, Prince Kamara, Esther Mokuwa, Amara Idara Sheriff, Roland Suluku,and Maarten Voors

Commentary | 31 Oct 2014 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (early publication on Speaking of Medicine)

Ebola has Taught us a Crucial Lesson about our Views of “Irrational” Health Behaviors

Sara Gorman

Blog | 22 Oct 2014 | Speaking of Medicine

Modeling the Impact of Interventions on an Epidemic of Ebola in Sierra Leone and Liberia

Caitlin M. Rivers, Eric T. Lofgren, Madhav Marathe, Stephen Eubank, Bryan L. Lewis

Research Article | 16 Oct 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

On the Quarantine Period for Ebola Virus

Charles N. Haas

Research Article | 14 Oct 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Insights into the Early Epidemic Spread of Ebola in Sierra Leone Provided by Viral Sequence Data

Tanja Stadler, Denise Kühnert, David A. Rasmussen, Louis du Plessis

Research Article | 6 Oct 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Commentary: Containing the Ebola Outbreak – the Potential and Challenge of Mobile Network Data

Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O. Buckee, Linus Bengtsson, Erik Wetter, Xin Lu, Andrew J. Tatem

Commentary | 29 Sep 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Temporal Variations in the Effective Reproduction Number of the 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak

Sherry Towers, Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Carlos Castillo-Chavez

Research Article | 18 Sep 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Ebola: a Blind Outbreak

Grazia Caleo

Blog | 18 Sep 2014 | Speaking of Medicine

Early Epidemic Dynamics of the West African 2014 Ebola Outbreak: Estimates Derived with a Simple Two-Parameter Model

David Fisman, Edwin Khoo, Ashleigh Tuite

Research Article | 8 Sep 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Assessing the International Spreading Risk Associated with the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak

Marcelo F. C. Gomes, Ana Pastore y Piontti, Luca Rossi, Dennis Chao, Ira Longini, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani

Research Article | 2 Sep 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Estimating the Reproduction Number of Ebola Virus (EBOV) During the 2014 Outbreak in West Africa

Christian L. Althaus

Research Article | 2 Sep 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

The Global Response to the Ebola Fever Epidemic: What Took So Long?

Mark J. Siedner, John D. Kraemer

Blog | 22 August 2014 | Speaking of Medicine

Ebola: Liberians Destined for Extinction

Gondah Lekpeh

Blog | 21 August 2014 | Speaking of Medicine

Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea: Where Ecology Meets Economy

Daniel G. Bausch, Lara Schwarz

Editorial | published 31 Jul 2014 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Clock Rooting Further Demonstrates that Guinea 2014 EBOV is a Member of the Zaïre Lineage

Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Jakob M. Schulze, Franziska Zickmann, Bernhard Y. Renard

Research Article | 16 Jun 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Phylogenetic Analysis of Guinea 2014 EBOV Ebolavirus Outbreak

Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut

Research Article | 2 May 2014 | PLOS Currents Outbreaks

Previous Outbreaks

Ebola Outbreak Response; Experience and Development of Screening Tools for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in a HIV Center of Excellence Near to VHF Epicentres

Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Ali Elbireer, Betty Mbambu, Faridah Mayanja, Alex Coutinho, Concepta Merry

Research Article | published 09 Jul 2014 | PLOS ONE

Hospital-Based Surveillance for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Hepatitides in Ghana

Joseph Humphrey Kofi Bonney, Mubarak Osei-Kwasi, Theophilus Korku Adiku, Jacob Samson Barnor, Robert Amesiya, Chrysantus Kubio, Lawson Ahadzie, Stephan Ölschläger, Michaela Lelke, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Meike Pahlmann, Stephan Günther

Research Article | published 19 Sep 2013 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Clinical Manifestations and Case Management of Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever Caused by a Newly Identified Virus Strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007–2008

Paul Roddy, Natasha Howard, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Julius Lutwama, Joseph Wamala, Zabulon Yoti, Robert Colebunders, Pedro Pablo Palma, Esther Sterk, Benjamin Jeffs, Michel Van Herp, Matthias Borchert

Research Article | published 28 Dec 2012 | PLOS ONE

Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?

Adam MacNeil, Pierre E. Rollin

Review | published 26 Jun 2012 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda

Jonathan S. Towner, Tara K. Sealy, Marina L. Khristova, César G. Albariño, Sean Conlan, Serena A. Reeder, Phenix-Lan Quan, W. Ian Lipkin, Robert Downing, Jordan W. Tappero, Samuel Okware, Julius Lutwama, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John Kayiwa, James A. Comer, Pierre E. Rollin, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Stuart T. Nichol

Research Article | published 21 Nov 2008 | PLOS Pathogens

Effective Post-Exposure Treatment of Ebola Infection

Heinz Feldmann, Steven M Jones, Kathleen M Daddario-DiCaprio, Joan B Geisbert, Ute Ströher, Allen Grolla, Mike Bray, Elizabeth A Fritz, Lisa Fernando, Friederike Feldmann, Lisa E Hensley, Thomas W Geisbert

Research Article | published 19 Jan 2007 | PLOS Pathogens

Immune Protection of Nonhuman Primates against Ebola Virus with Single Low-Dose Adenovirus Vectors Encoding Modified GPs

Nancy J Sullivan, Thomas W Geisbert, Joan B Geisbert, Devon J Shedlock, Ling Xu, Laurie Lamoreaux, Jerome H. H. V Custers, Paul M Popernack, Zhi-Yong Yang, Maria G Pau, Mario Roederer, Richard A Koup, Jaap Goudsmit, Peter B Jahrling, Gary J Nabel

Research Article | published 16 May 2006 | PLOS Medicine

Wave-Like Spread of Ebola Zaire

Peter D Walsh, Roman Biek, Leslie A Real

Research Article | published 25 Oct 2005 | PLOS Biology

Containing the Threat—Don’t Forget Ebola

Jonathan Cohen

Perspective | published 28 Dec 2004 | PLOS Medicine



Shed GP of Ebola Virus Triggers Immune Activation and Increased Vascular Permeability

Beatriz Escudero-Pérez, Valentina A. Volchkova, Olga Dolnik, Philip Lawrence, Viktor E. Volchkov

Research Article | published 20 Nov 2014 | PLOS Pathogens

High Content Image-Based Screening of a Protease Inhibitor Library Reveals Compounds Broadly Active against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Other Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses

Rajini Mudhasani, Krishna P. Kota, Cary Retterer, Julie P. Tran, Chris A. Whitehouse, Sina Bavari

Research Article | published 21 Aug 2014 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Transcriptional Correlates of Disease Outcome in Anticoagulant-Treated Non-Human Primates Infected with Ebolavirus

Sara Garamszegi, Judy Y. Yen, Anna N. Honko, Joan B. Geisbert, Kathleen H. Rubins, Thomas W. Geisbert, Yu Xia, Lisa E. Hensley, John H. Connor

Research Article | published 31 Jul 2014 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Identification of Continuous Human B-Cell Epitopes in the VP35, VP40, Nucleoprotein and Glycoprotein of Ebola Virus

Pierre Becquart, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Eric M. Leroy

Research Article | published 10 Jun 2014 | PLOS ONE

Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Augments Virus-Like Particle-Mediated Protection from Ebola Virus with Transient Immune Activation

Karen A. O. Martins, Jesse T. Steffens, Sean A. van Tongeren, Jay B. Wells, Alison A. Bergeron, Samuel P. Dickson, John M. Dye, Andres M. Salazar, Sina Bavari

Research Article | published 24 Feb 2014 | PLOS ONE

Ebola Virus RNA Editing Depends on the Primary Editing Site Sequence and an Upstream Secondary Structure

Masfique Mehedi, Thomas Hoenen, Shelly Robertson, Stacy Ricklefs, Michael A. Dolan, Travis Taylor, Darryl Falzarano, Hideki Ebihara, Stephen F. Porcella, Heinz Feldmann

Research Article | published 17 Oct 2013 | PLOS Pathogens

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

Jeffrey W. Koehler, Jeffrey M. Smith, Daniel R. Ripoll, Kristin W. Spik, Shannon L. Taylor, Catherine V. Badger, Rebecca J. Grant, Monica M. Ogg, Anders Wallqvist, Mary C. Guttieri, Robert F. Garry, Connie S. Schmaljohn

Research Article | published 12 Sep 2013 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Antibody Quality and Protection from Lethal Ebola Virus Challenge in Nonhuman Primates Immunized with Rabies Virus Based Bivalent Vaccine

Joseph E. Blaney, Andrea Marzi, Mallory Willet, Amy B. Papaneri, Christoph Wirblich, Friederike Feldmann, Michael Holbrook, Peter Jahrling, Heinz Feldmann, Matthias J. Schnell

Research Article | published 30 May 2013 | PLOS Pathogens

A Systematic Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Biological Threat Agents

Peter B. Madrid, Sidharth Chopra, Ian D. Manger, Lynne Gilfillan, Tiffany R. Keepers, Amy C. Shurtleff, Carol E. Green, Lalitha V. Iyer, Holli Hutcheson Dilks, Robert A. Davey, Andrey A. Kolokoltsov, Ricardo Carrion, Jean L. Patterson, Sina Bavari, Rekha G. Panchal, Travis K. Warren, Jay B. Wells, Walter H. Moos, RaeLyn L. Burke, Mary J. Tanga

Research Article | published 05 Apr 2013 | PLOS ONE

Ebolavirus Nucleoprotein C-Termini Potently Attract Single Domain Antibodies Enabling Monoclonal Affinity Reagent Sandwich Assay (MARSA) Formulation

Laura J. Sherwood, Andrew Hayhurst

Research Article | published 05 Apr 2013 | PLOS ONE

Antigenic Subversion: A Novel Mechanism of Host Immune Evasion by Ebola Virus

Gopi S. Mohan, Wenfang Li, Ling Ye, Richard W. Compans, Chinglai Yang

Research Article | published 13 Dec 2012 | PLOS Pathogens

The Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Contributes to but Is Not Sufficient for Virulence In Vivo

Allison Groseth, Andrea Marzi, Thomas Hoenen, Astrid Herwig, Don Gardner, Stephan Becker, Hideki Ebihara, Heinz Feldmann

Research Article | published 02 Aug 2012 | PLOS Pathogens

The Organisation of Ebola Virus Reveals a Capacity for Extensive, Modular Polyploidy

Daniel R. Beniac, Pasquale L. Melito, Shauna L. deVarennes, Shannon L. Hiebert, Melissa J. Rabb, Lindsey L. Lamboo, Steven M. Jones, Timothy F. Booth

Research Article | published 11 Jan 2012 | PLOS ONE

Ebola Virion Attachment and Entry into Human Macrophages Profoundly Effects Early Cellular Gene Expression

Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Sabine Kurz, Friedericke Feldmann, Lukas K. Buehler, Jason Kindrachuk, Victor DeFilippis, Jean da Silva Correia, Klaus Früh, Jens H. Kuhn, Dennis R. Burton, Heinz Feldmann

Research Article | published 18 Oct 2011 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

A Replicating Cytomegalovirus-Based Vaccine Encoding a Single Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein CTL Epitope Confers Protection against Ebola Virus

Yoshimi Tsuda, Patrizia Caposio, Christopher J. Parkins, Sara Botto, Ilhem Messaoudi, Luka Cicin-Sain, Heinz Feldmann, Michael A. Jarvis

Research Article | published 09 Aug 2011 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus

Adam MacNeil, Zachary Reed, Pierre E. Rollin

Research Article | published 07 Jun 2011 | PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Ebolavirus Is Internalized into Host Cells via Macropinocytosis in a Viral Glycoprotein-Dependent Manner

Asuka Nanbo, Masaki Imai, Shinji Watanabe, Takeshi Noda, Kei Takahashi, Gabriele Neumann, Peter Halfmann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Research Article | published 23 Sep 2010 | PLOS Pathogens

Cellular Entry of Ebola Virus Involves Uptake by a Macropinocytosis-Like Mechanism and Subsequent Trafficking through Early and Late Endosomes

Mohammad F. Saeed, Andrey A. Kolokoltsov, Thomas Albrecht, Robert A. Davey

Research Article | published 16 Sep 2010 | PLOS Pathogens

Steric Shielding of Surface Epitopes and Impaired Immune Recognition Induced by the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein

Joseph R. Francica, Angel Varela-Rohena, Andrew Medvec, Gabriela Plesa, James L. Riley, Paul Bates

Research Article | published 09 Sep 2010 | PLOS Pathogens

Demonstration of Cross-Protective Vaccine Immunity against an Emerging Pathogenic Ebolavirus Species

Lisa E. Hensley, Sabue Mulangu, Clement Asiedu, Joshua Johnson, Anna N. Honko, Daphne Stanley, Giulia Fabozzi, Stuart T. Nichol, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Pierre E. Rollin, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Michael Bailey, Peter B. Jahrling, Mario Roederer, Richard A. Koup, Nancy J. Sullivan

Research Article | published 20 May 2010 | PLOS Pathogens



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